The application of composite material technology on contemporary plane structure

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In 20 centuries to enhance the advanced composite material of body with carbon fiber 60 time metaphase comes out, begin to apply at plane structure namely at the beginning of 70 time. The application of advanced composite material is changed gently to plane structure character, modular having crucial effect. It is mature that as composite material design and the ceaseless development of production technology are mixed, advanced composite material is in army, the dosage on civil aircraft also is expanding ceaselessly. The leap of composite material dosage, drove composite material industry specialization and dimensions changes development, make advanced composite material is making a kind of maturity, stable aviation material stage by stage. Current, composite material and aluminium, steel, titanium together, already developed make material of construction of 4 big aviation. Contemporary and advanced dosage of composite material of construction of civilian machine airframe is bigger and bigger. Through the development of a few phase, already came true from blame bear force, second bear force member, to empennage advocate bear force, arrive again wing and airframe advocate bear force member application. This is the requirement of plane performance, also be commercial success and the need that the market competes. Level of technology of foreign composite material and development trend composite material compare intensity high as a result of its, wait for exceedingly good character than stiffness, apply more and more extensively at plane structure. At present the plane of domestic and international new development not only in the level stable range, aileron, hang down the structure such as end used composite material, and box of wing of airframe, wing advocate the structure also uses composite material, make structural unifinication rate high, systematic setup is relatively simple, reduce component number, shorten general assembly time. The physical character of composite material unusual and can design a gender, and give birth to those who produce cost to reduce in recent years, accelerated the process that aircraft construction select material transforms to composite material from metallic stuff. The application of composite material is had can make plane structure is decreased weigh 10% ~ 40% , structural design cost reduces 15% ~ the advantage of 30% . Face higher fuel price and rigidder and rigidder pollutant discharge standard, composite material can make the plane decreases serious virtue to appear particularly important. Represent current world large and civil aircraft is advanced business of two big production: Boeing company and empty passenger group, from 20 centuries 80 time rise to begin to use advanced composite material at the structure of large airlines. As experience accumulate the benefit that brings with place of advanced composite material to increase, structural application expands ceaselessly. Boeing company is in the Boeing of early days 737, Boeing 757 with Boeing in a few 767 type, the application of advanced composite material involved landing gear only cover of port, commutate, litre fall annulus, rudder, flap and aileron grade bear force structure. Arrived 90 time metaphase, in Boeing advanced composite material enlarges 777 development lieutenant general used perpendicular and stable range and horizontal remaining part stable range advocate structure. Empty customer firm uses advanced composite material at A300 plane first at 70 time metaphase hang down end, in A320 plane admiral application of advanced composite material enlarged stabilizer 1987, subsequently A321, A319, A330 and A340 maintained same applied level basically, expect to will advanced composite material application still has reservation at structure of lead plane ala. After entering 21 centuries, two big companies are Boeing and empty guest contention new generation is large and civil plane market, spread out what an advanced composite material applies to contend for. Boeing company is in its are new the Boeing of development 787 " dream " 50% what the dosage of advanced composite material on the plane achieves airframe weight, although empty customer firm is on application of advanced composite material,took the kind of asymptotic of a kind of in proper sequence, escalate uses range, with risk of bring down technology, on air bus of A380 new generation, dosage of advanced composite material also expands to 23% . Brutal market competition makes business of this two big production all regards the dosage of advanced composite material as implementation plane airframe to decrease reach the efficient way that reduces operation cost again, make advanced composite material warms up quickly in the application on civil aircraft thereby. Although two big companies are in empty guest and Boeing,go up into the acknowledge of composite material dosage first somewhat difference, but because empty customer firm gets the menace of tall dosage of Boeing company composite material, the dosage of the composite material of A350 plane admiral in the plan rose 52% , in order to form with Boeing the competition of 787 planes. A350 plane centrally ala box, outside alar box, hang down after wainscot of end, equal remaining part, airframe, airframe bear pressure lie between casing, carbon fiber composite material is used in great quantities on the structure such as keel roof beam (Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer, CFRP) . These circumstances showed the dosage of advanced composite material in airframe structure is to measure a plane one of important signs of advanced sex, be in especially wing advocate advanced composite material uses in the structure, can sufficient body reveals the advanced sex of plane structure technology. Advanced composite material already made civil aircraft stage by stage main construction material. Research of nearly 40 years makes clear with use experience as a result: Composite material has superior performance, in exhaustion and abominable use the environment issues what won't cause odd strength to reduce, these conclusion and experience strengthened the confidence of structure of each big company use composite material. The further progress of composite material technology, especially the development of low cost production technology, for composite material the wide application on civilian machine provided good technical platform, mix now the civilian chance construction in the future, a large number of use composite material had become a possibility. The development process abroad of technology of design of Nextpage   composite material structure the development of technology of composite material structure experienced civilian chance from second bear force member -- empennage class advocate bear force member -- wing advocate bear the process of force member, have typical sex. It is with the United States exemple, its development process is OK reduce 6 phase: The 1st phase, 20 centuries are in at the beginning of 70 time suffer the component part with very small force to be like cover of leading edge, commutate and buccal lid to go up; The 2nd phase, began to choose to suffer the part with not large force accordingly to undertake grinding beforehand 1976, boeing the rudder on 727 elevator, DC-10; The 3rd phase, began to remain the ACEE in NASA to plan to fall 1985, each big aircraft company begins to manufacture the part that gets the empennage degree with greater power; The 4th phase, 20 centuries begin formal on plane of type of production design to use composite material rudder, elevator at the beginning of 80 time; The 5th phase, 20 centuries are in at the beginning of 90 time B777 empennage box paragraph on use composite material; The 6th phase, nowadays is in Boeing airframe of 787 planes wing advocate bear composite material is used on force structure. It is mature that the development that composite material uses the rapid growth of the quantity to basically should be attributed to its technology on civil aircraft is mixed. 20 centuries since 80 time later period, the United States and Europe measured technology of composite material structure to pass TANGO in the light of low cost, weight (Technology Application To The Neevr-Term Groals And Objectives) plan of plan of plan, ALCAS(Advanced Low Cost Aircraft Structure) , ACT(Adranced Composite Technology) , AST plan a series of special plan research, obtained remarkable positive result. For example the ACT plan that the United States implements, study the application of technology of low cost workmanship, already developed RTM at present (figuration of model of colophony move film) , RFI (colophony film permeates figuration) , VARI (vacuum assists figuration technology) , fiber shop puts / to twine, pull crowded shape, automatic shop is put and use big silk bundle fiber. Among them RTM technology already applied in great quantities on F-22 plane (400 many spare partses use RTM craft to make) . Because VARI technology is reducing composite material to make cost and whole of large component part,shape the advantage of the respect, be taken seriously extensively in recent years. Fourth company of horse of · of American Losk Heed and company of American naval IPT cooperate, use VARI craft to make wainscot of commutate of face of the ala below the composite material of P-3. Fourth company of horse of Losk Heed · already the experiment that waits for type to go up in S-3, C-5, C-130 reachs proceed VARI craft test and verify works, expedite the application of low cost composite material on plane structure. These achievement apply on the design of civilian chance construction that developing gradually, make composite material be in civilian machine advocate the application in the structure appears revolutionary progress. Euramerican the durative long-term research that waits for a country to plan through series, had more thorough understanding to composite material structure, gained rich experience. These plans are passed choose fiducial platform, according to " building blocks piece " the method of experiment test and verify of type, from test specimen, component, typical structural member, component / child structure, arrive all the time full measure structure (integrated test and verify) have rigorous assessment. Through this one process, the basic function database that built material not only and structural design are allowable value, and structural design thought got assessment, the structure made a technology get assessing, accelerated new material, new structure design and the process that production technology uses at actual project greatly. If the United States is in,continued to begin AST to plan (the follow-up plan of ACT, 20 centuries in 90 time) . Plan to carry out in AST especially in, NASA and Boeing company combination began research of technology of wing of composite material of advanced low cost, it is research target with wing wing box, adopt a design, make and a series of research such as the experiment, test and verify the production technology of box of ala of low cost composite material. The to composite material application follow on the current situation of technology of structure of domestic composite material and structure of plane of difference our country is worn the footstep of advanced country on international, the course of development is basic and same. The army and the people chooses composite material structure on the face of of all kinds helm with the plane already very general. Carrying - advanced composite material used on structure of grade of the ventral of plane of 7 series branch line, rudder. Also be to empennage level structure begin to use research in 80 time end, arrived design of 90 time metaphase, development carries successfully - 7 composite material hang down end, obtained comfortable boat evidence. Our country is passed old grind beforehand and develop practice in great quantities, with low cost composite material application is the technology of the target to considered to had obtained delectable positive result, preliminary form engineering capability of composite material of advanced low cost. If Z is mixed to sew three-dimensional braid enhance composite material structure to make a technology; Technology of figuration of low cost RTM, VARTM, RFI, VARFI. These low cost make technical some already was used at the product, some did a large number of craft, function to experiment, test and verify the feasibility of craft. Helm face grade bear the structure of composite material of craft of low cost VARI of force structure and metallic structure photograph are compared, decrease heavy 25% , reduce production cost 17% . Be in at the same time " 915 " during, completed civilian engine design of empennage of full measure composite material, make with the experiment. Make structure of domestic composite material designs a technology to detect in scathing allowance design and test and verify, nondestructive, structure of the integration that add muscle is made / on the respect such as test and verify of comfortable boat of structure of craft, composite material a step. Current, our country has begun to undertake composite material wing advocate the research of structural technology works. Because wing structure external form is complex, join impact is much, the structure is complex, size is large, treatment production difficulty is great. At the same time wing needs to consider engine condole to hang contact, landing gear to prop up a structure to wait for the effect that focuses load to wait a moment. These special requirements, mix to the design make bring difficulty. Current technology condition looks, can have made a 15m grow wainscot of composite material wing, also develop a ply to bear the weight of in the large composite material of 40mm above at the same time contact. Although home makes a respect obtain very great progress in the design of composite material, but as advanced as international level is compared, be in especially composite material advocate bear the difference with respect of production technology of force structure design or quite big presence. Composite material can divide roughly in the applied circumstance on plane structure for 3 phase: The 1st phase is to apply at sufferring to hold not large simple part part, be like face of lid of of all kinds mouth, helm, obstruction board, landing gear port; The 2nd phase is to use Yu Chengli's bigger empennage grade step advocate bear force structure, if perpendicular and stable range, level is stable face, complete move ala of equal remaining part, duck to wait; The 3rd phase is to apply at advocate bear force structure, be like wing box paragraph, airframe. The composite material that 3 phase place involves makes a technology is 3 disparate arrangement of ideas, be completely different on load level, the demand that creates a technique to component part is diverse also, the complex degree of the dimension of component part and structure also has considerably rise. Home's current technology level is in the level of the 2nd phase. Make a technology to the design of wainscot of whole of large composite material, because dimension and load are added,the ambassador must be in the choice of composite material configuration and optimize, the design is allowable the design of the affirmatory, detached face of the value, mechanical join, production precision and craft stability, experiment grinds the respect such as card method needs to undertake. Making with engineering technology respect, structure of domestic aviation composite material produces manufacturer besides use beforehand autoclave of dip makings / shapes component of craft production composite material, also begin to use all sorts of low cost to make a technology produce different composite material component part, the nondestructive with also was deployed certain detects equipment, use laser generally plane of band of fixed position, automatic shop, beforehand the composite material such as braiding machine of machine of dip makings cut, prefab body makes equipment, preliminary and contented the demand that shows production of component of level aviation composite material. But remain to the production of component of large airlines composite material not close, especially technology of large whole figuration and method remain crucial bottleneck, from mould, material, examine wait for data system and standard standard respect, home still does not have what pass comfortable boat attestation homebredly to get used to next generation now advanced civilian machine the carbon fiber of composite material, even if fiber of fragrant black silk ribbon, fibre glass (cloth) also did not pass course of comfortable boat attestation. Agree with at present advanced the epoxy resin system that composite material component uses civilian machine has certain base, but data is not perfect, have not obtain comfortable boat attestation. The last word reviews the progress of technology of foreign composite material, used almost grind beforehand first, the method that uses in model again. 20 centuries since 80 time later period, the United States and Europe began research of many special plans with respect to technology of composite material structure, had obtained remarkable positive result, as a result of the taking of these achievement, composite material appears to make progress revolutionarily in the applied ability in civilian chance construction. The application that goes up with the plane in the army and the people as domestic advanced composite material expands ceaselessly and design and the accumulating of production technology, the technology of structure of low cost composite material of trend of development of composite material of a few delegates also makes progress somewhat. To the application of structure of plane composite material research also is in begin continuously. Make in carbon fiber, production equipment of composite material construction, composite material advocate structural design technology, large nondestructive detects technical respect had had great progress. Can anticipate, sure meeting is in the achievement of projects of these continual research of of all kinds composite material home receives many application in new plane project in the future, enhance the competition ability of industry of aviation of our country alive bound thereby. CNC Milling